851.--Terms used to express the Properties of Medicines.
852. Absorbents are medicines which destroy acidity in the stomach and bowels, such as magnesia, prepared chalk, &c.
853. Alteratives are medicines which restore health to the constitution, without producing any sensible effect, such as sarsaparilla, sulphur, &c.
854. Analeptics are medicines that restore the strength which has been lost by sickness, such as gentian, bark, &c.
855. Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain, and they are divided into three kinds, sedatives, hypnotics, and narcotics (see these terms); camphor is anodyne as well as narcotic.
856. Antacids are medicines which destroy acidity, such as lime, magnesia, soda, &c.
857. Antalkalies are medicines given to neutralize alkalies in the system, such as citric, nitric, and sulphuric, acids, &c.
858. Anthelmintics are medicines used to expel and destroy worms from the stomach and intestines, such as turpentine, cowhage, male fern, &c.
859. Antibilious are medicines which are useful in bilious affections, such as calomel, &c.
860. Antirheumatics are medicines used for the cure of rheumatism, such as colchicum, iodide of potash, &c.
861. Antiscorbutics are medicines against scurvy, such as citric acid, &c.
862. Antiseptics are substances used to correct putrefaction, such as bark, camphor, charcoal, vinegar, and creosote.
863. Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming spasms of the muscles, or allaying severe pain from any cause unconnected with inflammation, such as valerian, ammonia, opium, and camphor.
864. Aperients are medicines which move the bowels gently, such as rhubarb, manna, and grey powder.
865. Aromatics are cordial, spicy, and agreeably-flavoured medicines, such as cardamoms, cinnamon, &c.
866. Astringents are medicines which contract the fibres of the body, diminish excessive discharges, and act indirectly as tonics, such as oak bark, galls, &c.
867. Attenuants are medicines which are supposed to thin the blood, such as ammoniated iron, &c.
868. Balsamics are medicines of a soothing kind, such as tolu, Peruvian balsam, &c.
869. Carminatives are medicines which allay pain in the stomach and bowels, and expel flatulence, such as aniseed water, &c.
870. Cathartics are strong purgative medicines, such as jalap, &c.
871. Cordials are exhilarating and warming medicines, such as aromatic confection, &c.
872. Corroborants are medicines and food which increase the strength, such as iron, gentian, meat, and wine.
873. Demulcents correct acrimony, diminish irritation, and soften parts by covering their surfaces with a mild and viscid matter, such as linseed-tea, gum, mucilage, honey, and marsh-mallow.
874. Deobstruents are medicines which remove obstructions, such as iodide of potash, &c.
875. Detergents clean the surfaces over which they pass, such as soap, &c.
876. Diaphoretics produce perspiration, such as tartrate of antimony, James's powder, and camphor.
877. Digestives are remedies applied to ulcers or wounds, to promote the formation of matter, such as resin, ointments, warm poultices, &c.
878. Discutients possess the power of repelling or resolving tumours, such as galbanum, mercury, and iodine.
879. Diuretics act upon the kidneys and bladder, and increase the flow of urine, such as nitre, squills, cantharides, camphor, antimony, and juniper.
880. Drastics are violent purgatives, such as gamboge, &c.
881. Emetics produce vomiting, or the discharge of the contents of the stomach, such as mustard and hot water, tartar-emetic, ipecacuanha, sulphate of zinc, and sulphate of copper.
882. Emmenagogues are medicines which exercise a direct action on the uterus or womb, provoking the natural periodical secretion, such as castor, asafœtida, galbanum, iron, mercury, aloes, hellebore, savine, ergot of rye, juniper, and pennyroyal.
883. Emollients are remedies used externally to soften the parts they are applied to, such as spermaceti, palm oil, &c.
884. Epispastics are medicines which blister or cause effusion of serum under the cuticle, such as Spanish flies, Burgundy pitch, rosin, and galbanum.
885. Errhines are medicines which produce sneezing, such as tobacco, &c.
886. Escharotics are medicines which corrode or destroy the vitality of the part to which they are applied, such as lunar caustic, &c.
887. Expectorants are medicines which increase expectoration, or the discharge from the bronchial tubes, such as ipecacuanha, squills, opium, ammoniacum.
888. Febrifuges are remedies used in fevers, such as all the antimonials, bark, quinine, mineral acids, arsenic.
889. Hydragogues are medicines which have the effect of removing the fluid of dropsy, by producing watery evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel, &c.
890. Hypnotics are medicines that relieve pain by procuring sleep, such as hops, henbane, morphia, poppy.
891. Laxatives are medicines which cause the bowels to act rather more than natural, such as manna, &c.
892. Narcotics are medicines which cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain, such as opium, &c.
893. Nutrients are remedies that nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, &c.
894. Paregorics are medicines which actually assuage pain, such as compound tincture of camphor, henbane, hops, opium.
895. Prophylactics are remedies employed to prevent the attack of any particular disease, such as quinine, &c.
896. Purgatives are medicines that promote the evacuation of the bowels, such as senna, aloes, jalap, salts.
897. Refrigerants are medicines which suppress an unusual heat of the body, such as wood-sorrel, tamarind, &c.
898. Rubefacients are medicaments which cause redness of the skin, such as mustard, &c.
899. Sedatives are medicines which depress the nervous energy, and destroy sensation, so as to compose, such as foxglove. (See Paregorics.)
900. Sialogogues are medicines which promote the flow of saliva or spittle, such as salt, calomel, &c.
901. Soporifics are medicines which induce sleep, such as hops, &c.
902. Stimulants are remedies which increase the action of the heart and arteries, or the energy of the part to which they are applied, such as food, wine, spirits, ether, sassafras, which is an internal stimulant, and savine, which is an external one.
903. Stomachics restore the tone of the stomach, such as gentian, &c.
904. Styptics are medicines which constrict the surface of a part, and prevent the effusion of blood, such as kino, Friar's balsam, extract of lead, and ice.
905. Sudorifics promote profuse perspiration or sweating, such as ipecacuanha, antimony, James's powder, ammonia.
906. Tonics give general strength to the constitution, restore the natural energies, and improve the tone of the system, such as all the vegetable bitters, most of the minerals, also some kinds of food, wine, and beer.
907. Vesicants are medicines which blister, such as strong liquid ammonia, &c.